Why Nations Fail offers case studies to illustrate these points: the economic rises and subsequent decline of the Soviet Union and the Ottoman Empire; the resistance of the tsarist Russia and the Habsburg Empire to building railroads, out of fear that they would undermine the landed aristocracy’s power and foster revolution, and, especially relevant today, the likely future trajectory of Communist China, whose growth prospects appear unlimited to many Western observers, but not to Acemoglu and Robinson, who write the China’s growth “is likely to run out of steam.”
A young Eritrean that was born in the US once said, "When I hear people call Eritrea a new nation, it startles me because I grew knowing Eritrea to be a nation." Most Eritrean children that grew up in the US before independence have encountered people that told them Eritrea does not exist on the map. Their answers were always that Eritrea existed in their heart and they knew that she will be free.
Democracy means different things to different cultures and mostly contested term and it is often more in name only than genuine. Democracy as we see it in the developing nations has lead to blunder, ethnic killing and religious war. Eritrea wants none of this nonsense. Eritrea’s governance is based on equality, justice, diversity in unity and quality of life. Political reforms include more substantive principle. What we need is Governance with constitutional constraints, tailored to local realities and a government that is devoted to its people and increase opportunity. Eritrea does have leaders, institutions, social forces and effective, efficient and genuine leadership with high administrative skill to bring the nation into prospers civil and modern nation.
As for agricultural productivity, it averages lower in tropical than in temperate areas, again for several reasons. First, temperate plants store more energy in parts edible to us humans (such as seeds and tubers) than do tropical plants. Second, diseases borne by insects and other pests reduce crop yields more in the tropics than in the temperate zones, because the pests are more diverse and survive better year-round in tropical than in temperate areas. Third, glaciers repeatedly advanced and retreated over temperate areas, creating young nutrient-rich soils. Tropical lowland areas haven’t been glaciated and hence tend to have older soils, leached of their nutrients by rain for thousands of years. (Young fertile volcanic and alluvial soils are exceptions). Fourth, the higher average rainfall of tropical than of temperate areas results in more nutrients being leached out of the soil by rain.
An additional factor behind the origin of the good institutions that I discussed above is termed “the reversal of fortune”. Among non-European countries colonized by Europeans during the last five hundred years, those that were initially richer and more advanced tend paradoxically to be poorer today. That’s because, in formerly rich countries with dense native populations, such as Peru, Indonesia, and India, Europeans introduced corrupt “extractive” economic institutions, such as forced labor and confiscation of produce, to drain wealth and labor from the natives. (By extractive economic institutions, Acemoglu and Robinson mean practices and policies “designed to extract incomes and wealth from one subset of society (the masses) to benefit a different subset (the governing elite)).
With the shining victory at Afabet and the demise of the enemy’s Nadew Iz the EPLF emerged stronger both in morale of its fighters and military equipment. The heavy artillery it captured from the enemy augmented its fighting capacity and ready to launch surprise attacks on the enemy lines with its initiative rather than expecting to repulse enemy attacks.
Asked about what it would take for the total liberation of Eritrea after the decisive Fenkil offensive and the annihilation of the enemy from the Port city of Massawa, President Isaias Afwerki, then Secretary General of the EPLF, said that “Victory would be a matter of months”. By all means of calculation and the damage inflicted upon the enemy forces during the consecutive offensives of the liberation fighter it had been inevitable that the enemy had no power or the will to resist the advance of the EPLF fighters.